WHO ARE FORMED FAMILIES?
- About 2½ percent of children under 18 years in the U.S. are adopted.
- An additional one percent of children are in foster care at any point in time.
- More than 450,000 children and youth enter foster care annually in the US; nearly 5200 children in Virginia are in foster care.
- Nearly 10% of children in northern Virginia are in adoptive, foster or kinship families (i.e., not related to the adult householder as a biological child or stepchild).
- So, in an average U.S. classroom, at least one student is adopted or in foster care, and more are in kinship families.
- While many adopted and foster children are physically and emotionally healthy and experience educational success, some are at greater risk of emotional, behavioral and learning problems.
- Children who were adopted are significantly more likely than non-adopted peers to have or have had diagnoses of depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behavior or conduct problems and have problems with social behavior.
- Children and youth in foster care and kinship care are at higher risk of having disabilities and requiring special education services. Some specific studies have found:
- Children and youth in foster care are significantly more likely to be identified as eligible for special education with an emotional or behavioral disturbance.
- More than a quarter of children who have substantiated maltreatment had been identified as having a disability; the most common type of disability was emotional disturbance, while other common disabilities included intellectual and developmental disabilities and learning disabilities.
- Children with substantiated maltreatment with disabilities were about two times more likely to be in out of home placement than children with substantiated maltreatment without disabilities.
- More than half of children in out of home care scored in the clinical range on standardized measures of mental health, with conduct disorders, ADHD, post traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalized anxiety disorder being the most prevalent disorders.
- Overall, more than a third of adopted children have special health care needs; more than half of children adopted from public foster care have special health care needs.
2014 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau, national and northern Virginia county and city data; 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents; Smithgall et al., cited in National Working Group on Foster Care and Education, December 2008; Zetter et al., 2004; Bay Area study, cited in National Working Group on Foster Care and Education, December 2008; Tirella, Chan, & Miller, 2006; Beverly et al., 2008; Geenen & Powers, cited in National Working Group on Foster Care and Education, December 2008; Lightfoot, Hill & LaLiberte, 2011; Tarren-Sweeney, 2013